When Japan Bombed the U
moncler sale Japan’s Fugo (sometimes Fu Go, fire balloons, or balloon bombs) program was one of its desperate last gasp attempts to turn the tide of war in its favour. After crushing 1944 defeats at Guam, Truk, the Marshall Islands, and elsewhere, the Japanese tried a new tactic. High explosive and incendiary devices were attached to balloons and launched into the high altitude. The idea was that these balloons moncler jackets men would be carried across the Pacific Ocean by the jet stream and create havoc on the West coasts of Canada and the United States.
cheap moncler jackets Fugo SpecificationsNational Public Radio reports that moncler chicago “The balloons, or ‘envelopes,’ designed by the Japanese army were made of lightweight paper fashioned from the bark of trees.”
moncler outlet online Hundreds of individual pieces of paper were glued together often by schoolchildren, who used a paste made moncler jackets for women from a tuber. They were filled with hydrogen gas.
The device could lift about 450 kilograms but a lot of this was in the form of ballast sand held in bags. The lethal part of the package was only 15 kilos in weight.
buy moncler jackets The balloons rose to about 35,000 feet (10.7 km) and travelled eastwards, taking three to five days to reach North America. During the journey, hydrogen gas leaked out of the balloon causing it to descend. So, a battery controlled mechanism moncler jackets mens was needed to counteract moncler coats sale this effect. At about 25,000 feet (7.6 km) a barometric pressure switch would release sandbags so the balloon would rise back to its cruising altitude. Once at the correct height, a valve would open to release some hydrogen moncler outlet online store to hold the contraption in the right place.
The Japanese calculated that by the cheap moncler jackets wholesale time the balloon reached landfall it would be out of sandbags, and the barometric pressure switch would start dropping bombs instead. With the last bomb gone a fuse would light causing the balloon to blow up in an orange fireball.
cheap moncler The Campaign BeginsThe first of up to 10,000 fire balloons was released in early November 1944. The man who oversaw the technical side of the program, Major Teiji Takada, was at the launch. He is reported to have said “The figure of the balloon was visible only for several minutes moncler outlet mall following its release until it faded away moncler outlet as a spot in the blue sky like a daytime star.”
monlcer down jackets A couple of days buy moncler jackets toronto later, a navy patrol off the California coast saw what looked like tattered cloth in the water. Sailors retrieved it moncler coats and sent it off to the FBI. It didn’t take long for experts to figure out what was happening.
Writing in World War II journal (2003) James M. Powles describes how in December 1944 some coal miners in Wyoming saw “a parachute in the air, with lighted flares and after hearing moncler coats for women a whistling noise, heard an explosion and saw smoke in a draw newmoncleroutlet near the mine about 6:15 pm.”
Soon, reports were coming in from all over the Pacific coast. A balloon was shot down near Santa Rosa, California and people were finding bits of paper from the balloons in Los Angeles. They were turning up in the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan in Canada, as well as Oregon, Montana, and Arizona.
cheap moncler outlet After all the technical challenges the Official Moncler Outlet Japanese had overcome, their fire balloons were almost totally ineffective. The main purpose was to set fire to the vast moncler outlet online forests of the Pacific northwest, but climate moncler jackets canada got in the moncler outlet location way of that plan.
cheap moncler sale The west to east jet stream is at its strongest between November and March, so that was the chosen bombing period. However, that’s the time of the highest precipitation in the target region. The incendiaries that moncler outlet woodbury did reach the ground were unable to start major conflagrations moncler jackets kids in the discount moncler jackets snow pack or saturated debris on the forest floor.
Despite this, the Japanese propaganda machine claimed large numbers of casualties and forest fires. https://www.newmoncleroutlet.com The Fugo campaign was the “prelude to something big” America was warned.
cheap moncler coats That “something big” might have been biological cheap moncler jackets warfare that the Japanese were known cheap moncler jackets outlet to be experimenting with. The ballooning season ended with the northern hemisphere spring of 1945 as the high altitude winds moderated. By the following autumn, Japan had been bombed into unconditional surrender. government decided to drop a cloak of secrecy over the entire business. There were two moncler jackets outlet reasons for this.
moncler outlet store It was determined that the balloon bombs were moncler coats cheap not significantly dangerous and revealing their existence to the general public might cause a panic.
Secondly, if the attacks were reported in the media, the Japanese might consider them successful and be encouraged to launch more. And, if the location of the finds was revealed the Japanese might perfect their navigation.
In May 1945, the government lifted the censorship. That was because of a tragic moncler jackets outlet online accident.
The Gearhart Mountain moncler jackets toronto PicnicOn May 5, 1945, Pastor Archie Mitchell and his wife Elsie guided a group of children from their church in Bly, Oregon into moncler jackets cheap the Fremont National Forest for a picnic. Pastor Mitchell dropped his passengers off and went to park his car.
Mrs. Mitchell and the children found something moncler jacket outlet on the ground and called to the pastor to come and take a look.
moncler mens jackets Before he could examine the object there was an moncler outlet canada explosion. When Pastor Mitchell and another man who was moncler outlet usa nearby arrived at the scene “Four of moncler outlet store the moncler outlet uk children were dead, part of them badly mangled, another died immediately, and Mrs. Mitchell died within a few minutes. None were conscious after the explosion. Mrs. Mitchell’s clothes were on fire, and Mr. Mitchell immediately put this fire out (Melva Bach, History of the Fremont National Forest, pages 207 208) ”
moncler outlet sale It was, of course, a Japanese balloon bomb. investigators found that moncler coats for cheap part of the motivation for the Fugo program was the so called Doolittle raid. Army Air moncler coats for men Forces planned and led a raid on Tokyo. Sixteen B52s dropped bombs on Japan’s capital and on other targets on the island of Honshu. The fact that the Japanese homeland was vulnerable to aerial attacks came as a huge shock to Discount Moncler Coats the people and some form of retaliation was demanded.
moncler sale outlet In October 2014, an unexploded balloon bomb was found by forestry workers in the mountains near Lumby, British Columbia, Canada. It was discount moncler outlet described as still “functional,” although it isn’t any more. A bomb disposal teams blew the device up. Experts believe there are still more of these unexploded balloon bombs lying where they cheap moncler landed in remote forested areas.
moncler outlet The crane is a symbol in moncler jackets Japan of peace and healing. So, in 1987, some of the schoolchildren who made the paper balloons folded 1,000 paper moncler outlet ny cranes. They sent these icons of moncler outlet kids atonement to the families of the Oregon picnickers who were killed by one of their devices. A letter accompanied the cranes saying, in part, “We participated in the building of weapons used to kill people without understanding much beyond the knowledge that America was our adversary in a war. To think that the weapons we made took your lives moncler outlets usa as you were out on a picnic! We were overwhelmed with deep sorrow.”.